There are a wide variety of doors made of many different materials which can be used within the home. Doors vary in thickness and in size as well. Doors for the home come from 11/8” to over 2″ in thickness. However, most interior doors are 13/8” thick while the popular exterior door is 1¾” thick.
While the height and width of doors varies considerably, certain sizes are considered common by the trade. Among the sizes most readily available are:
2’6″ x 6’6″
2’8″ x 6’8″
2’10” x 6’10”
3′ x 7′
In addition to the everyday doors that are set in place with hinges on one side, there are many other types of doors which the handyman can use in his home. Actually, doors can be classified according to the technique of hanging; these are:
1. Hinged doors – batten, hollow-core, solid, panel – all fastened to the door jamb with two or three hinges, depending upon the size of the door.
2. Sliding doors – these have become increasingly popular during the past few years. They are mounted on tracks and move back and forth instead of opening in and out.
3. Folding doors – accordion folding doors save both floor and wall space. They offer the same advantages as the sliding doors, but in addition they fold compactly so that you have practically full access through the doorway when the accordion-fold door is opened.
4. Recessed doors – an old style door has been revived in the modern manner. Floating action hardware makes it possible to open the door into the wall. You can use any flush or panel door.
Types of Hinged Doors
A door, whether interior or exterior, should harmonize with the architecture and furnishings of the house. If you have a door or doors which don’t seem to fit in properly, you may replace them with ready-made doors obtained at a lumber or building supply dealer. That is, if your present doorways are standard size and don’t need special dimensions. Or, with a little imagination and energy you can remodel an old door so that it will reflect your own taste.
Flush Door – This is, of course, the height of all modern style in a door, as it is all of one piece, without any paneling or molding. The very absence of any trim makes it an ideal door which may be adapted to any type of room.
One-panel Door – While this is not as austere in design as the flush door, it is also a simple style which fits in with any modern or traditional house.
Two-panel Door – This could also have three or four panels, according to your taste, with the panels spaced underneath each other in the proportions you desire.
Six-panel Door – When a door has made more than four panels, it becomes impossible to have them all horizontally; this necessitates making two rows of panels, proportioned according to your decorating taste.
Dutch Door – This is a horizontally divided door, usually across the center, and it allows for the top part to be open while the bottom section remains closed. This is of special value in a door leading to the exterior of the house, when ventilation is desired but a certain amount of privacy is maintained through the closed bottom. Also, this is recommended for the interior of the house, between rooms, when there is an active small child or an animal pet that needs to be kept within bounds.
Glass-paned Exterior Door – An exterior door may be made most attractive through using as panels, clear, opaque, frosted, or even colored glass. If the existing door has wood panels you want to replace, it is not a difficult task to remove them and insert the glass, finishing off with the existing molding or new molding bought for the purpose.
When finishing a basement or attic or adding a room to your home, you have to make provisions for doors. The actual framing is very simple and can be done with only a rule, square and hand saw. If you follow the few simple steps shown here, you will have made a door frame in the professional manner.
How to Hang with Hinges
Doors may be hung right hand or left hand. The hand side of the door does not mean the knob side of the door. The proper hand of the door means the hinge side or edge, whether opening from or toward you.
– In blueprints of a home when the architect marks the door openings R, it means that the door is to be hung with the hinges to the right and swinging out away from you.
– When the door opening is marked RR, it means that the door is hung on the same jamb but opens toward you.
– Marking the opening with an L indicates that the hinges are to be placed on the left jamb as you face the door from the outside and the door opens away from you.
The hand of a door is determined from the outside. The term “outside” refers to the street side of an entrance and the corridor side of a room. In a communicating door, room to room, the outside of the door is the side from which, when the door is closed, the hinges are not visible and the door opens from you.
The outside of a closet door, opening either hand, is the room side and this applies to sliding doors as well as hinged doors. When standing outside of a door, if the hinge butts on the right, it is a right hand door; on the left, a left hand door. Kitchen doors in recent installations are hung so that they can be swung away from you as you approach them from either side. This type of door requires special spring hinges which are generally mortised into the door.
Generally, house doors are hung on hinges made of iron, steel, brass or bronze, or on steel hinges which have been coppered, nickeled, or oxidized. There are also a number of invisible hinges which are available. Hinges should be checked to see that the loose pins are not painted over and inoperative. The use of the loose pins makes it possible to remove the door for any purpose without taking off the hinges.
Hanging a door requires care and precision to insure the proper and efficient functioning of the door. The following steps outline the proper procedure in hanging a door:
1. Fit the door to the frame allowing 1/16” at the top and each side.
2. If a threshold is already in place, the door should be marked to allow for the thickness of the threshold plus ¼” clearance.
3. After marking and indicating the amount of stock to be removed, plane the door until it fits the side of the frame from which it is to be hung. Also plane the top and bottom so that the door fits the frame with the clearances indicated in steps 1 and 2.
4. Wedge the door into position and mark a short line on the hinge edge of the door 8″ from the top of the door and a line the same distance from the bottom of the door. These lines indicate the position of the top edges of the upper and lower hinges.
5. Remove the door and stand it up edgeways. Place the hinge in place on the edge of the door, lining up the upper edge of the top hinge with the line on the door.
6. Using a scriber or knife point, mark carefully the outline of the hinge on the door edge.
7. Make the same layout of the hinge location at the bottom edge of the door.
8. Use the scriber to locate the positions of the hinges on the door frame at the top and bottom.
9. Mark a line on the side of the door to indicate the depth of gain or the section of wood to be cut away for the hinge to rest in.
10. Mark also the depth of gain on the door frame.
11. Chisel out the wood on the door frame and door edges or use a router.
12. Separate the hinge parts and fasten them in place on the frame and door with screws.
13. Use a drill to start the screw holes and make sure that the hinge leaf pulls tight into place.
14. Place the door into position and insert the pins.
15. Check the door swing and make any adjustments necessary.
Using a Butt Gage
If you plan to install a number of doors in your home, it is best to buy a butt gage. This handy tool will simplify your installation problem and help you avoid making mistakes.
How to Make Flush Doors
While flush doors are available in many different sizes in your local lumber yard, you might want a size that is not readily available or you might wish to build your own.
You need seasoned lumber if you wish to avoid difficulties later. If you use green lumber, the door will warp as the lumber dries inside your home. For an interior door, use 1″ stock with the outside panels made of 1/8” hardboard or ¼” plywood. For an exterior door, use 1″ stock for the inside frame, ½” exterior grade for the outside and ¼” plywood for the inside.
The various types of locks generally used on house doors may be divided into two categories:
1. Rim locks
2. Mortise locks
Rim locks are more easily located and installed than the mortise locks. However, they are generally unsightly and bulky. In addition they can easily be removed by simply taking out the screws which fasten them to the door. The rim locks have been generally replaced by the mortise locks which are stronger and more attractive.
Mortise locks come in a wide variety of styles and shapes. Cylindrical and tubular locks are designed so that a keyhole plate is eliminated and neater more decorative door treatments are now possible. Many manufacturers such as Yale and others now provide a template with the lock package. The template makes it a simple and fast operation to install a lock. These templates are designed to work on both the door surfaces and each lock has its own template.
Installing a Mortise Lock
1. If your lock has been provided with a template simply follow the instructions printed on it.
2. Without a template, locate the knob spindle and key holes by using the keyhole plate or the lock. Mark their positions on the side of the door.
3. Bore the holes for the spindle and key.
4. Locate the center line on the edge of the door and mark the position of the mortise to receive the box of the lock. Bore and chisel out the mortise.
5. Place the box in the mortise and with a sharp knife point or scriber mark the area to be cut out for the gain of the lock.
6. Remove the lock and cut out the gain.
7. Fasten the lock into position with the screws provided and attach the key hole plate and knobs.
8. Close the door and mark the vertical position of the latch on the door jamb.
9. Open the door and locate the position of the latch by means of the vertical line. Locate the horizontal position of the latch plate by marking a center line on the door jamb. This center line must be the same distance from the stop molding as is the center line of the door edge which will hit the stop molding.
10. Cut the mortise or gain for the latch plate and insert into position with screws provided.
11. Chisel, drill or bore out the openings for the latch and bolt.
How to Install a Cylindrical Lock
1. Mark height line across edge of the door – 38″ is the usual height above the floor. Fold the template over the edge of the door, centering it on the height line. Mark centers of the 7/8” and 17/8” holes needed with this make and type of lock.
2. Bore a 17/8” hole through the door using a brace and expansion bit and then a 7/8” hole into the edge of the door with a brace and bit at the points marked when using the template. Cut out for latch front with a chisel and install the latch unit.
3. Mark height line for strike on the door jamb. Mark the vertical center line – this center line must be the same distance from the stop molding as latch case center line is from edge of door which will hit the stop molding. Cut mortise in jamb with a chisel for the strike and box. Insert both and tighten securely with screws.
4. Adjust the lock to the width of the door. To adjust this type of lock for a 13/8” door, unscrew the outside rose plate 1/8” from the case. To adjust for a 1¾” door, unscrew the outside rose to provide 5/16” between rose plate and case. Adjusting for any thickness between 11/8” and 1¾” is done by setting the rose plate at a suitable intermediate position.
5. With latch case in place, insert the lock assembly into the 17/8” hole, making sure that the lock case catches retainer legs and retractor snaps over the tail of the mechanism.
6. Place the rose plate over fastening screws with “top” up and turn clockwise until the unit stops. Then tighten screws securely.
7. Place the inside rose over rose plate with notch in rose over spring retainer and snap rose down so it is flush with the door.
8. Install the inside knob by aligning the lug on the knob with narrow slot on edge of spindle. Push knob all the way in until the retainer clicks in slot on knob.
9. This lock is set for a right hand door. When properly installed the name of the manufacturer must be above the key slot. If not, the hand must be changed.
10. To change the hand of the lock, turn outside knob counter-clockwise approximately 45° and insert a small nail in hole of trim cap. Depress retainer and slide the knob off. Turn the knob 180° until manufacturer’s name is on top and then replace the knob.
11. To reverse the latch for doors opening outward, pull the latch front rim “A” from latch unit “B” and rotate the bolt head “C” 180° or one-half turn. Then replace the latch front. The latch case should be installed with beveled surface of bolt facing the door jamb and side of case stamped “outside” facing the outside of the door.
Doorest is one of the first establishments of the sector since 1966, with models such as furniture door, joint door, glass door, PVC door, profiled door, laminate door, lacquer door.